Bitumen Asphalt production

Bitumen Asphalt Production:

Material with a boiling point greater than around 500 °C we consider asphalt. Vacuum distillation separates it from other components in crude oil. The resulting material is typically further treated to extract small but valuable amounts of lubricants and to adjust the properties of the material to suit applications. In a de-asphalting unit, the crude asphalt is treated with either propane or butane in a supercritical phase to extract the lighter molecules, which are then separated. Further processing is possible by “blowing” the product: namely reacting it with oxygen. This step makes the product harder and more viscous.

we store Asphalt and transported at 150 °C. Sometimes diesel oil or kerosene we mixed in before shipping to retain liquidity. So before delivery, they must separate these out of mixture. This mixture we often call “bitumen feedstock” BFS.
The backs of tippers carrying asphalt, as well as some handling equipment, are also commonly sprayed with a releasing agent before filling to aid release. Because of environmental concerns Diesel oil not uses as a release agent.

Oil sands:

Naturally occurring crude bitumen impregnated in sedimentary rock is the prime feed stock for petroleum production from “oil sands”, currently under development in Alberta, Canada. Canada has most of the world’s supply of natural bitumen, covering 140,000 square kilometres, giving it second-largest proven oil reserves in the world. The Athabasca oil sands are the largest bitumen deposit in Canada and the only one accessible to surface mining, although recent technological breakthroughs have resulted in deeper deposits becoming producible by in situ methods.

Because of oil price increases after 2003, producing bitumen became highly profitable, but as a result of the decline after 2014 it became uneconomic to build new plants again. By 2014, Canadian crude bitumen production averaged about 2.3 million barrels (370,000 m3) per day and they projected to rise to 4.4 million barrels (700,000 m3) per day by 2020. The total amount of crude bitumen in Alberta that they could extract and they estimate to be about 310 billion barrels (50×109 m3), which at a rate of 4,400,000 barrels per day (700,000 m3/d) would last about 200 years.

Alternatives and bioasphalt:

Although un-competitive economically, asphalt can be made from non-petroleum-based renewable resources. Also can made from waste material by fractional distillation of used motor oil. That may cause premature cracking in colder climates, resulting in roads that need to be repaved more frequently.


Nonpetroleum-based asphalt binders we can made light-colored. Lighter-colored roads absorb less heat from solar radiation, reducing their contribution to the urban heat island effect. Parking lots that use asphalt alternatives are called green parking lots.

Albanian deposits
Selenizza is a naturally occurring solid hydrocarbon bitumen found in native deposits in Selenice, in Albania. The bitumen that we found in the form of veins, filling cracks in a more or less horizontal direction. Bitumen content varies from 83% to 92%, with penetration near to zero and

120 °C softening point. The insoluble matter, consisting mainly of silica ore, ranges from 8% to 17%.

Today mines exploited in open pit quarry. Many underground mines still remain viable. Selenizza produced in granular form, after melting bitumen pieces selected in mine.


Bitumen Penetration 60-70

What is Bitumen Penetration 60-70?

The major Grade Bitumen is Bitumen Penetration 60-70 and It Generally uses for different usages. Penetration grading quantifies the following asphalt concrete characteristics:

Penetration depth of a 100 g needle 25° C (77° F)
Flash point temperature
Ductility at 25°C (77°F)
Solubility in trichloroethylene
Thin film oven test(accounts for the effects of short-term aging that occurs during mixing with hot aggregate)
Retained penetration
Ductility at 25° C (77° F)
In addition, Penetration grading’s basic assumption is that the less viscous the asphalt, the deeper the needle will penetrate.

Grading Bitumen Penetration 60-70:

How ever Penetration also specified by softening point and penetration test. Also Designation is by penetration range only. The Penetration Grade Bitumen have a thermoplastic property which causes the material to soften at high temperatures and to harden at lower temperatures. This temperature – viscosity relationship also is important when determining  performance parameters such as the adhesion,  durability and usage temperatures of bitumen.


Bitumen Penetration 60/70

Bitumen additives:

Non-parametric performance is important in determining the asphalt performance. Also, Bitumen additives known as promoters and enhancers main role of bitumen in the bitumen increased resistance against permanent deformation at high temperatures. How ever Asphalt modifiers, should not be have a negative effect on bitumen spec in different temperatures. How ever If the elastic and viscous bitumen consists of two parts consider increasing elastic component bitumen, a viscous component is reduced, and this will increase the dynamic stiffness pitch. also Bitumen additives also have been effective, economically and executive is acceptable, readily available and can be blended with bitumen.

Bitumen Penetration 60/70 Spec:

Bitumen Penetration 60-70

Product Test Data Sheet for Down Load:

Bitumen 60-70 PDF click for download



Bitumen VG 30

Bitumen VG 30:

Bitumen VG 30   is a standard grade Bitumen usually we use as a Paving Grade Bitumen. It is suitable for road construction and for the production of asphalt pavements with superior properties. Also This grade of Bitumen mainly can use in the manufacture of hot mix asphalt for bases. How ever wearing courses, and possesses characteristics and qualities unique sand quite different from other agents.
They achieve very flexible and tenacious connections with other materials due mainly to viscoelastic response of bitumen.  Which behavior depends on how fast charges we apply. Also Pars Universal Bitumen Supply Viscosity Grade Bitumen and petroleum grade bitumen. Manufacture from fractional / vacuum distillation of crude oil, which practical appliance and behavior varies according to its temperature.

Providing Bitumen VG 30:

Pub-ltd produce Bitumen from vacuum residue (short residue) feed stock. Viscosity Grade bitumens specify by the methods described in ASTM Standard D3381-09 and AASHTO M226-80 (2008). Also Viscosity Grade specifications covers bitumen (asphalt) graded by Viscosity at 60 C (140 °F). There are two methods of grading:ºStandard Viscosity Grade Bitumen (AC-Grades), in which the Viscosity of the standard bitumen (asphalt) measure at 60 ºC (140 ºF). Also RTFOT Viscosity Grade Bitumen (AR-Grades), in which the Viscosity of bitumen (asphalt) is measured at 60 °C (140 °F) after the roll on thin film oven test.


Bitumen Penetration

Bitumen Penetration Grade:

Bitumen Penetration usually characterized in three grade types;

  1. Viscosity 
  2. Penetration
  3. Density



Bitumen Penetration:

Consistency of a bituminous material expressed as the distance in tenths of a millimeter that a standard needle vertically penetrates a sample of the material under known conditions of loading, time, and temperature.

In addition, Penetration value test on bitumen is conducted to determine the rigidity or uniformity of bituminous material. A 80/100 grade bitumen signifies that its penetration value remains among 80 & 100.

Also Penetration refers to vertical distance traversed or infiltrated by the point of a standard needle into the bituminous material under particular conditions of load, time and temperature. Also This distance is calculated in one tenths of a millimeter.

In addition, main purpose of penetration test is to assess the conformity of bitumen. Furthermore, It isn`t recommended to use in connection with testing of road tar because of high surface tension exposed by these materials.

Penetration test  purposes:

1. Reliability of bituminous material
2. Bitumen usability for utilized under various atmospheric conditions and construction types.

Equipments for Penetration Test for defining the penetration value of bitumen

Container: It is a flat bottomed cylindrical metallic dish having necessary diameter 55 mm and depth 35 mm. If the penetration is of the order of 225 or more, dish of 70mm diameter and 45mm depth is essential.

Needle: It belongs to a straight, extremely polished, cylindrical and hard steel rod.

Water bath: It remains at 25° ± 0.1 °C that comprises minimum 10 litres of water, sample is submerged to a depth not below 100mm from top.

Transfer dish or tray: It provides support to the container & should not rock it.

It should contain the ability to submerge container entirely throughout test.

Penetration apparatus: It facilitates needle to infiltrate devoid of much friction & is perfectly calibrated to produce results in one tenth of a millimeter.

Thermometer: Range 0- 44 °C and in readable upto 0.20 C.

Time measuring device: It brings exactness of l second.

Safeguards recommended throughout Penetration Test

No movement of the container we allow when needle enters into sample.
There should be no extraneous matter in the sample.
The needle should be cleansed with benzene and dehydrated prior to penetration.

Production condition in various geographical:

Nominal capacity of bitumen in Iran is approximately 4.5 million tons and actual production is 3.5 million tons which local consumption is 2.8 million tons and the rest exporting.

To clarify Iran bitumen also prepares from 7 refineries around Iran and the biggest one is in Isfahan-Arak-Shiraz-Tabriz-Bandar Abbas- Abadan also Tehran.  In addition, responsibility of domestic and export market referred to private companies.However  From total production of bitumen 85% we use in road construction and repair and the rest distributing in insulation and roofing industry.

Statistical of bitumen production in Iran:

Total productions of bitumen during 8 years remain the same and each year 3.5 million tons bitumen produced in Iran. Also Problem of bitumen production in Iran Daily usage of bitumen is main reason that there is not any research and development in this sector and whatever bitumen refineries producing there is demand for that in market. Also The second issue is selling in bulk and using second hand drum.

Problem to export bitumen and solutions:

The main problem in export of bitumen is packing and purchase from refineries which has too much relation and lobby. However Normally European countries importing bitumen in bulk since oily drum has too much extra cost for them to transfer to special zone of oil garbage. Also Paying subside to bitumen exporter from 1998 to 2009 Export of bitumen from Iran had some support from government, but now all exported who exporting bitumen and other oil products has to pay tax. Also International bitumen exhibitions and syndicate.

Iran bitumen:

It`s including all road bitumen grades for paving application as asphalt cement and penetration starting from 10/20 up to 160/220 but specialist on bitumen 40/50, bitumen 60/70, 80/100 and 85/100 which is most consumable Iran bitumen in worldwide market. In the other hand, Iran bitumen is famous quality of bitumen since raw material “vacuum bottom” is very light compare to other countries.

Packing of Iran bitumen:

Available packing is new steel drum, Bulk bitumen, Bitutank.Bitumen Penetration

  1. New steel drum: Size of drum bitumen is 110, 150 and 185kg and our bitumen is available just in new steel drum.
  2. Bitumen in bulk vessel: We are able to supply bitumen in bulk starting from 1000MT up to 36000MT.
  3. Bitu-tank: Tank should arrange by customer. Therefore We also can support bitumen buyers up to FOB of BND.

Globally Bitumen is member of Iran bitumen syndicate:

Globally bitumen – pub-ltd –  is member of syndicate Iranian bitumen manufacturer and exporter. In addition we export  specially road bitumen 40/50 , bitumen 60/70 and 80/100 as per international ASTM/EN with CE approval.

Bitumen Penetration manufacturing process:

Iran Bitumen we produce from crude oils through fractional distillation process. Crude oil also heated to 300 _ 350 C. Also It fed into a distillation column. This process done by allowing lightest fractions of crude to separate, through vaporization, from heavier fractions, which remain liquid.
Higher boiling point fractions are then drawn – off via a heat exchanger and enter a vacuum distillation column. Also This process produces a short residue. However It used to manufacture several grades of bitumen. Pressure and temperature conditions within the vacuum process will determine hardness of short residue, and as such the grade of Iran bitumen produced. Also It could further modified by air blowing through 250 – 300 C.

Quality of Iran bitumen:

We are doing several test on bitumen before export , some of the test is as below

Bitumen Penetration  test

Specific gravity of bitumen

Softening point of bitumen

Solubility of bitumen in TCE

Ductility test on bitumen

Flash point on bitumen

Spot test on bitumen

Drop in penetration of bitumen after loss on heating

Change of mass

Retained penetration

Ductility at 15C


Penetration Bitumen

Penetration Bitumen

Penetration Bitumen Grade is a standard bitumen usually used as a Paving Grade Bitumen essential for road construction and also for asphalt pavements with superior properties. In addition, it’s very important once it bounds the aggregates and creates a unique cohesion and stability to the bituminous mix.

Furthermore, Bitumen is mainly used in the manufacture of hot mix asphalt for bases and also wearing courses.

pub-ltd Penetration Grade Bitumen is petroleum grade bitumen and manufactured from fractional / vacuum distillation of crude oil. Also The Bitumen supplied by Pars Universal Bitumen is produced from vacuum residue (short residue) feedstock.

Penetration Grade bitumens also specified by penetration and softening point test. Designation is by penetration range only. The penetration grade bitumens have a thermoplastic property which causes the material to soften at high temperatures and to harden at lower temperatures and In addition, this unique temperature/viscosity relationship is important when determining  performance parameters such as adhesion, rheology, durability also uses temperatures of bitumen.

Global Leading Bitumen ( pub-ltd ) supplies all Penetration Graded Bitumen in correspondence to ASTM D946-09 and EN 12591-2009, including:

Penetration Bitumen

ASTM D946-09 Grades:

  • Bitumen Penetration Grade 40-50

  • 60-70

  • 85-100

  • 120-150

  • 200-300

EN 12591-2009 Grades:

  • Bitumen Penetration Grade 20/30

  •  30/45

  •  35/50

  • 40/60

  • 50/70

  • 70/100

  • 100/150

  •  160/220

Iran penetration bitumen has high quality in the world.  It is famous to NIOC Iran bitumen and available in different grades, packing between 10000 MT to 12000 MT monthly.
Available packing is new steel drum, polybag, Bulk bitumen, Bitutank.

Product Summary

Global Leading Bitumen ( pub-ltd ) also is member of syndicate Iranian bitumen exporter (bitumen 40/50, 60/70, 80/100  and  160/220) partner of most drumming factories which has owned export license for exporting all grades of bitumen as per of ASTM standard

Penetration Bitumen

Iran Penetration Bitumen?

It produced from crude oils through fractional distillation. In addition Crude oil also heated to temperatures of between 300 and 350C. Also fed into a distillation column allowing the lightest fractions of crude to separate, through vaporization, from the heavier fractions, which remain liquid.

In addition, higher boiling point fractions are drawn – off by heat exchange and enter a vacuum distillation column. Also this process produces a “short residue” used to manufacture several grades.  The  pressure and temperature conditions  within  vacuum  process  will  determine hardness of the short residue. Also as  such  the  grade  of   produced.

Furthermore short residue maybe modified by air blowing. so In which air is passed through residue at temperatures of 250 – 300 degrees Celsius.
The above are typical Penetration or Paving Grades of bitumen. Additional processing provides other grades of bitumen products such as:

Oxidized bitumen – produced by more vigorous air blowing; and they are more ‘rubber like’ and less temperature susceptible than the paving grades.
Hard Grade bitumen – harder paving grades.

Cutback bitumen – blends of penetration bitumen with solvent such as kerosene.
Emulsions – stabilized suspensions of bitumen in water.
Polymer Modified Bitumen – mixtures of selected bitumen with polymers such as thermoplastics or elastomers.

Bitumen Penetration specification:

Bitumen Pnetration All Grades TDS for download





Cutback Bitumen

What is Bitumen (Asphalt) Cutback Bitumen?

Bitumen is ‘cutback’ by adding controlled amounts of petroleum distillates such as kerosene. This is we do to reduce the viscosity of the bitumen temporarily. So it can penetrate pavements more effectively or to allow spraying at temperatures that are too cold for successful spraying sealing with neat bitumen. The materials we use to cutback bitumen will evaporate after application to leave the remaining material similar in hardness to the original bitumen.

Applications of Cutback Bitumen in Bituminous (asphalt) Pavement Construction and Maintenance:

Prime and Tack Coating

The process of priming involves applying a low viscosity binder that we  prepare but usually unbound aggregate base. It is we intend that the top layers of the base to absorb . And provide a surface more easily ‘wetted’ by a subsequent bituminous covering. The primer will be able to carry traffic for a short time (although this practice is uncommon) and help control dust. Generally, we apply primers at rates between 0.5 and 1.4 L/m2. Cutback bitumens suitable for priming are also we use for tack coats, which we apply to an underlying surface to help with the adhesion of subsequent asphalt layer. A typical application rate is between 0.2 and 0.4 L/m2.

Prime Sealing

Where temperatures are too cool for an effective priming operation, or where traffic is likely to upset a primed surface before the final seal can be sprayed, a primer seal can be used to give adequate protection of the pavement for periods of up to 6 to 12 months. Cutback bitumens suitable for primer sealing can also be used in the manufacture of pre-mix asphalt, which is used in patch repairs.

Spray Sealing

Cutback bitumens we use extensively in sprayed sealing applications. Particularly in cooler weather where they provide improved initial stone retention due to their lower viscosity. Typically, a single application of the appropriate cutback bitumen we spray onto the primed pavement. Onto which aggregate we laid.